Traditionally, Dayak culture was based on the cultivation of swidden rice.
Agricultural land was divided into hill rice farming areas, gardening areas and forested areas. The Dayaks organized their labor in terms of traditionally based land holding groups.
The “green revolution” of the 1950s caused the cultivation of new types of rice among the Dayaks. Currently, large scale plantations growing palm oil and bananas threaten the local political, agricultural and rainforest landscape in many regions of Borneo. The conflict between the state-owned plantations and the Dayak natives over land laws and native rights will continue as long as the model on land tenure is used against local customary law.